Operational Restructuring Process


There are plenty of trouble in today’s economy due to the financial down turn that has hit Norway the last years. Almost each day we can hear in the media about mass layoffs from several major corporations within the offshore, oil and gas sector. Witch infects again over to other sectors.

Europe are experiencing the worst downturn since the great depression.  Few industries have been spared the agony of hardship.

For the last 15 years I have been working with different operational turnaround cases within different sectors such as fruit and vegetables, media, finance, transport, distribution, logistic etc.

Turnaround opportunities abound for those who have the knowledge and fortitude to go through the process.  The rewards can be plentiful, and the failures catastrophic, to be a great turnaround specialist one ned to be a great strategist (https://www.dr-glennhole.org/what-it-means-to-be-a-strategist/). The process of turning around a troubled entity is complex; my biggest corporate turnaround challenges was consolidating seven companies with the total of 1600 employees to one new corporate entity.  It is more difficult to run a turnaround case when we talk about consolidating seven different companies to one unit then turnaround case of one single company. In this business cases there are so much different interest that are involved, all of whom have different agendas.  Lenders want a return of their invested capital, preferably with interest.  Creditors want their money in exchange for goods and services.  Original investors want and hope for recovery of their capital.  While distressed investors want to buy in at entire part of the value, then turn a profit; some by trading the credit, others by turning the business positive then selling.  Owners want to avoid guarantees and recoup some of their equity.  Employees want their jobs and benefits.  Directors want to avoid risk and litigation.  Other stakeholders want their interests protected.  These desires can often be at odds with other parties and hamper the effort.

Let me address the turnaround process as if all constituents are in favour of proceeding through to the end, when a restructured entity emerges.  Clearly there are other scenarios that you can envision. There are many causes that contribute to business failure.  Businesses fail because of mismanagement.  Sometimes it is denial, sometimes negligence, but it always results in loss.

Mismanagement is most often seen in more than one of multiple areas: 

–          Autocratic Management,

–          Overextension  

–          Ineffective

–          Non-existent Communications

–          High Turnover Neglect of Human Resources

–          Inefficient Compensation & Incentive Programs

–          Company Goals Not Achieved or Understood

–          Deteriorating Business

–          No New Customers

–          Inadequate Analysis of Markets & Strategies

–          Lack of Timely, Accurate Financial Information

–          History of Failed Expansion Plans

–          Uncontrolled or Mismanaged Growth

To be successful in this arena you need clear-thinking to quickly assess opportunities to determine what is wrong, develop strategies that no one has tried before, and implement plans to restructure the company.  The problems are rarely what management indicates they are, but instead are two or three underlying systemic ills that can often be fixed.  You can’t focus on the symptoms, but must find the real causes.  Management has allowed these problems to exist and bring the company down to its depressed state, therefore they are not equipped to manage the turnaround. Turnaround specialists are often an excellent choice when these circumstances are present.  They bring a new set of eyes, trained in managing and advising in troubled situations.  These experts are either practitioners or consultants.  Turnaround practitioners take management and decisionmaking control as the chief executive officer or chief restructuring officer.  Turnaround consultants on the other hand advise management, perhaps the same management that failed before. The key is to build enterprises that future buyers want to invest in.

Investors/buyers look for:

–          Businesses that create value

–          Consistency period to period

–          High probability of future cash flows 

–          History of performance and improvement, or the promise of cash

–          Market-oriented management team 

–          Focus on producing revenue

–          Ability to sell and compete; develop, produce, and distribute products; thrive and grow

–          Track record or demonstrated changes in the right direction

–          Fair entry valuation.  Realistic return potential

–          Exit options.  Realize high ROI at the time of their resale. 

There is a process of recovery and investment.  It is based upon the fundamental premise that there is a lack of management when companies are in trouble.  You must conduct fact-finding to assess the situation, then prepare a plan to fix the problems.  You must implement the planned courses of action by funding the process and building a team to carry it out.  Then monitor the progress and make changes where necessary.

There are five stages in the turnaround process:

–          Management Change

–          Situation Analysis

–          Emergency Action

–          Business Restructuring, and

–          Return to Normality. 

Let’s look at these individually to understand what should transpire at each stage by each function within the company; see Turnaround Process Phases and Actions Chart.  The timing is important to coordinate what is happening between functions.  Stages can overlap, and some tasks may impact more than one stage. The process is designed to first stabilize the situation, which is done by addressing management issues, assessing the situation, and implementing emergency actions.  The restructuring process begins with preparations during the emergency action phase.  The positioning for growth starts with restructuring and grows when normalcy stage is reached.

Management Change Stage

It is very important to select a CEO who can successfully lead the turnaround.  This individual must have a proven track record and the ability to assemble a management team that can implement the strategies to turn the company around.  This individual most often comes from outside the company and brings a special set of skills to deal with crisis and change.  Their job will be to stabilize the situation, implement plans to transform the company, then hire their replacement. It is essential to eliminate obstructionists who may hamper the process.  This could require replacing some or all of top management depending on the deal.  This will undoubtedly mean also replacing some of the board members who did not keep a watchful eye. Management must address the issues related to major stakeholder groups (executives, function managers, employees, lenders, vendors, customers, others).  There must be change in the focus of how the company will operate to accomplish a turnaround.  Most companies have a lack-ofsales problem, which necessitates a change to jump-start sales and drive revenue.  There must be information that all can rely on for decision making.  Production management must support and make what the market wants to purchase, at competitive price.  You must nurture critical human capital resources that are left within the company, while at the same time holding them accountable for results. Changing management is synonymous with changing the philosophy of how we will run the place to achieve results.  Communication with all stakeholders is paramount through all stages of the process.  Set goals that achieve stakeholder objectives, then apply incentive-based management to motivate the proper results.  Tie everyone to the same broad set of goals and accent how functions can complement the performance of related departments.

Situation Analysis Stage

Your objective is to determine the severity of the situation and if it can be turned around.  Answer questions like is the business viable?  Can it survive?  Should it be saved?  Are there sufficient cash resources to fuel the turnaround?  This analysis should culminate in formulating a preliminary action plan stating what is wrong, how to fix them, key strategies to turn the entity in a positive direction, and a cash flow forecast (at least 16 weeks) to understand cash usage.   Identify effective turnaround strategies.  Operational strategies include increasing revenue, reducing costs, selling and redeploying assets, and competitive repositioning.  Strategic initiatives include adopting sound corporate and business strategies and tactics, setting specific goals and objectives that align with the ultimate goals of the stakeholders.  Too often, goals are misaligned with the ultimate direction and cause confusion, wasted time, false-starts, and send employees in the wrong direction.  Understand that many of the good employees have already left the company, you will have to work with the second string in the essence of time and build as you go. You must understand the life cycle of the business and how it relates to the chosen turnaround strategy.  Document key issues so that all will understand what you are trying to accomplish, and all will pull in the same direction.  Identify what product and business segments are most profitable, particularly at the gross margin level, and eliminate weak and nonperformers.  Make certain that all functional areas (sales, production) are working to support the goals of their counterparts.  Selling work with flexible delivery times can fill valleys in production cycles, which reduce costs per unit.  Producing only what sales can sell to meet customer demand will increase sales and gross margin. Turnaround strategies are often impacted by local government policy considerations and regulations.

Emergency Action Stage

Your objective is to gain control of the situation, particularly the cash, and establish breakeven.  Centralize the cash management function to ensure control.  If you stop the cash bleed, you enable the entity to survive.  Time is your enemy.  Protect asset value by demonstrating that the business is viable and in transition. You must raise cash immediately.  Review the balance sheet for internal sources of cash such as collecting accounts receivable, and renegotiating payments against accounts payable.  Sell unprofitable business units, real estate, unutilized assets.  Secure asset-based loans if needed.  Restructure debt to balance the amount of interest payments with the level the company can afford.

Turnaround Phases & Actions: Lay off employees quickly and fairly.  It is much better to cut deep all at once, than to make small cuts repeatedly.  Remaining employees are more prone to focus if they believe in job security, rather than look for the next action. Rightsizing the company is much more than employee layoffs.  Correct underpricing of products, prune product lines to only those profitable and that meet demand, and weed out weak and problem customers.  Sometimes there is to much overhead applied to support a customer who isn’t paying their fair share of that service.  Emphasize selling more product at profitable rates.  Reward those that change the situation, sanction or release those that don’t.

Business Restructuring Stage

Your objective is to create profitability through remaining operations.  Stress product line pricing and profitability.  Restructure the business for increased profitability and return on assets and investments.  At this stage your focus should change from cash flow crisis to profitability.  Fix the capital structure and renegotiate the long and short term debt. Ensure that reporting systems put in place are operationalized to show profitability at each revenue centre, cost centre, profit centre, cash centre, incentive centre.  Unless employees can see it they can’t manage it. Incentive-based management will drive employees to get involved smartly, and manage to the goals all ascribe to.  Create teams of employees to identify and rework inefficiencies and promote profitability.   There are only two ways to increase sales.  Sell existing product to new customers.  Sell new products to existing customers.  Do both if you want growth.

Return to Normal Stage

Your objective is to institutionalize the changes in corporate culture to emphasize profitability, ROI, and return on assets employed.  Seek opportunities for profitable growth.  Build on competitive strengths.  Improve customer service and relationships.  Build continuous management and employee training and development programs to raise the calliper of your human capital. This could be a time to restructure long term financing at more reasonable rates now that the company is stable and on a path to growth.   The odds of a successful turnaround are increased dramatically if a Turnaround Process Phases and Actions Plan is implemented and followed.  This plan can certainly be adapted to unique situations when required.  Turn one around.


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